Tamoxifen protects against obesity-related metabolic disorders

Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, is the gold standard for endocrine treatment of estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer. Tamoxifen is also known to have metabolic effects. A new study in The American Journal of Pathology reports that the drug also prevents obesity, fatty liver, and insulin resistance in female mice who were fed a high-fat diet and whose ovaries had been removed. The study was also able to pinpoint which estrogen receptors underlie these protective effects, opening up possibilities for new therapies to treat these conditions.

“For the past two decades, estrogen receptor α (ERα) has been identified as a key regulator of energy and glucose homeostasis and consequently proposed as a promising target to develop new therapeutic strategies to fight against obesity-related metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, understanding the mechanisms of the metabolic protection conferred by ERα activation has been a crucial challenge,” explained Pierre Gourdy, MD, PhD, INSERM UMR1048, Institut des Maladies Métaboliques et Cardiovasculaires, Université de Toulouse (France).

Mice whose ovaries had been removed were fed a high-fat diet and treated with either tamoxifen or a placebo for 12 weeks. Investigators found that tamoxifen prevented weight gain,…

10 Ways to Burn More Calories During Any Type of Workout

abs-situps-sweat-workout-exercise-muscle

Let’s face it: whether you’re an experienced exerciser or totally new to working out, very few of us have the time to dedicate hours upon hours to our sweat sessions. That’s why it’s important to make every minute count. These proven tips and techniques will turn up your calorie burn during every workout you do, helping you bust through fitness plateaus and melt fat away in less time.

Pump up the jams

Pop in your earbuds, cue up your favorite playlist and get cranking. Listening to music is one of the easiest—and most fun—ways to rev up your calorie burn. When a team of University of Wisconsin researchers asked men and women to perform two 8-minute exercise sessions on a stationary bike, one with music and one in silence, the exercisers increased their average heart rate by 10 beats per minute, worked harder, and burned 7% more calories when they pedaled to tunes.

Pair up with an inspirational partner

Exercising with someone just a little better than you can bring out your calorie-scorching best. In one study, researchers from Kansas State University found that people who exercised with a partner they thought was a little fitter and stronger than they were increased their workout time and intensity by as much as 200%.

The more muscles you use, the more calories you burn. That means letting go of the rails on the treadmill and not leaning on the elliptical so your lower body and supporting core muscles have to work harder to keep you upright and in motion.

Put your arms into it

Race-walkers have an adage: As your arms go, your legs follow. If you want to speed up your pace and turn up your burn, pump your arms faster and your feet will follow. You’ll also engage more…

Autoimmune Attack Vs Insulin-Producing Cells: Discovery In The Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes

GlucoWatch Biographer
(Photo : Cygnus/Getty Images) The GlucoWatch Biographer, the only FDA-approved product for adults with diabetes designed to measure glucose levels frequently, automatically and non-invasively, is on display in an undated photo. The GlucoWatch Biographer was released on the U.S. market April 15, 2002 from Cygnus, Inc.

Almost 29 million cases of diabetes were reported in the United States. Although Type 1 diabetes covers a lesser population from the total of diabetic patients, there is no known cure for the metabolic condition.

According to Diabetes And Environment, in the case of Type 1 Diabetes, the beta cells does not produce enough insulin because of the death of beta cells. Beta cells secrete insulin which is essential in human metabolism. Insulin converts sugar to energy, without insulin the blood sugar level increases causing diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease wherein the body’s immune system attacks and kills its own beta cells. Inflammation makes the beta cells as targets of the T cell to further…

Small fat-burning molecule could help combat global epidemic of obesity

A small molecule could provide valuable help in combating the global epidemic of obesity. When it was fed to obese mice, the animals’ metabolism sped up and their excess weight was shed. It is doing so by recruiting the help of a body’s own genes in countering the effects of a high-fat diet. The research team conducting the study believes their findings may provide a new unexplored therapeutic approach to fighting excessive weight gain in cases where diets or exercise have no effect. The study was led by Julien Santo, Celia Lopez-Herrera and Cécile Apolit of a French biotechnology company, and is published in Springer Nature’s International Journal of Obesity.

A high-fat diet may contribute to obesity in some individuals. Treatment in such situations has focused on behavioral changes, which is highly challenging to achieve for the general population on a long term basis. This study introduces the concept of recruiting the help of our genes in countering the effects of a high-fat diet, instead of focusing on reducing the intake of high-fat food.

Researchers know that the structure of some genes that help to produce certain proteins can actually change when someone constantly eats too much high-fat food. In the process, the person can become overweight or obese, or develop other lifestyle-related metabolic disorders such as diabetes or heart problems. In many cases, the same gene can produce two or more alternate proteins, based…

Common nutrition myths

KUSA – As a clinical dietitian, I’ve heard it all: “Will eating only sweet potatoes make me lose weight?”, “Is brown sugar better for me than white sugar?” There are tons of nutrition myths out there, which just further confuses the already confusing topic of nutrition. So what is true and what is false when it comes to nutrition? The following will hopefully help clear up some common facts and myths.

Fact or Myth: “High-Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) is worse for you than sugar.”

Myth: Although HFCS has gotten a bad rep recently and is often deemed as “worse than sugar,” HFCS and table sugar (sucrose) are actually almost identical in their composition. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, sucrose is made up of 50% fructose and 50% glucose, while HFCS is made up of 55% fructose and 45% glucose. Calorie-wise they are exactly identical, both containing 4 calories per gram. And in studies that compare the effects of HFCS with sucrose, HFCS and sucrose have no significant metabolic or endocrine response differences or differences in health-related effects. Both the American Heart Association and the FDA do not acknowledge one as more damaging to your health than the other. Bottom line: Obsessing about avoiding HFCS takes the focus off of the more important issue of how much overall added sugars we are consuming, regardless of the type of sugar.

Fact or Myth: “Your body can’t use the protein from beans unless you eat them with rice.”

Myth: Proteins are made up of different combinations of 20 amino acids. Our bodies are only able to make 11 of these 20 amino acids. We have to get the other 9 from the foods that we eat, and therefore these…

MGH researchers uncover mechanism revealing why aspartame may not promote weight loss

A team of Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) investigators has found a possible mechanism explaining why use of the sugar substitute aspartame might not promote weight loss. In their report published online in Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, the researchers show how the aspartame breakdown product phenylalanine interferes with the action of an enzyme previously shown to prevent metabolic syndrome – a group of symptoms associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. They also showed that mice receiving aspartame in their drinking water gained more weight and developed other symptoms of metabolic syndrome than animals fed similar diets lacking aspartame.

“Sugar substitutes like aspartame are designed to promote weight loss and decrease the incidence of metabolic syndrome, but a number of clinical and epidemiologic studies have suggested that these products don’t work very well and may actually make things worse,” says Richard Hodin, MD, of the MGH Department of Surgery, the study’s senior author. “We found that aspartame blocks a gut enzyme called intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) that we previously showed can prevent obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome; so we think that aspartame might not work because, even as it is substituting for sugar, it blocks the beneficial aspects of IAP.”

In a 2013 study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Hodin’s team found that feeding IAP to mice kept on a high-fat diet could prevent the development of metabolic syndrome and reduce symptoms in animals that already had the condition. Phenylalanine is known to inhibit the action of IAP, and the fact that…

Omega-3 fatty acids can stimulate activation of brown and beige adipose tissues, study finds

Omega-3 fatty acids are able to stimulate the activation of brown and beige adipose tissues, a discovery that would promote the development of new therapies for obesity and other metabolism diseases, according to a research study published in the journal Nature Communications under the supervision of Professor Francesc Villarroya, from the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biomedicine and the Biomedical Research Center Red-Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN) of the Institute of Health Carlos III.

In the new study, carried out in laboratory animal models, the research team noticed that Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAS) stimulate the activation of brown and beige adipose tissue through a specific receptor (GPR120), which enables the release of the hormone FGF21 (21 fibroblast growth factor). This hormone, built by the adipocyte, is a molecule that regulates lipid glucose and metabolism and therefore, it is an effective target for the action mechanism of Omega-3.

“This discovery has implications in the understanding of the positive effects of n-3 PUFAS on the control of metabolic diseases and other…

Make These 5 Changes to Boost Your Metabolism All Day

Have a sluggish metabolism? Fight back by doing these things throughout your day to boost your metabolism from morning till night.

 
  1. Choose these every time you eat: Sounds crazy,
    but the chewiness of fruits, veggies, and whole grains makes your
    mouth work harder, and the high-fiber content also takes more
    energy to digest, which combined adds up to a 10
    percent increase in calorie burn
    . Choose these foods in their
    whole, natural state to reap more of the metabolism-boosting
    benefits.
  2. Lean protein, too: Protein also requires more
    energy to digest while keeping you feeling full and satisfied, so
    be sure to include this essential nutrient in every meal and
    snack.
  3. Drop and give me 20: Right before
    every…